USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS
By Dr. Harnek
Good education is the basis of every educational programme and audio-visual
equipment is an
integeral part of it.
Audio-visual equipment is that equipment which helps us in forming a clear
concept about an item, without written or printed words. Though the most clear concept about
an item can be formed by direct contact only (just as concept of an orange can be formed best only by
seeing and tasting it), yet there is such a large number of items in the world that it is
practically impossible to have a direct contact with each and every item. Audio-visual aids help us in
With the help of audio-visual aids, the teacher can create situations with
which the lesson becomes lively and effective. The children learn the lesson attentively and
it is but natural that they will remember the lesson for a long period. Sometimes, active
participation of the children (like touching a model, putting flash cards on flannel board and
finding a city on map) is sought while using audio-visual aids and it makes the lesson interesting.
The classroom environment becomes congenial and natural and the children learn everything
Use of audio-visual aids in education is not a novel idea. The ruins of famous educational
centre Takshila reveal that pictures related to history of India were engraved on the walls of
some of its rooms. Pictures concerning religious stories of Ramayan and
Mahabharat, made on cloth, were popular among the people. Education was also given to the people
through puppet shows.
Use of audio-visual aids for teaching various subjects began in fifteenth century. Erasmus was
against cramming and he emphasised that the children should be taught through pictures and
other aids. Later on, Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi and many other educationists
supported his view.
For the first time in independent India, All India Educational Conference
discussed the use of
audio-visual aids in January, 1948 and, since then, many educational conferences and
commissions have stressed upon the use of aids.
Black-board is the cheapest and most usable aid. A good teacher always makes
use of it while
teaching any subject to any class. In lower classes, the handwriting of the
children can be improved by writing beautifully on it, problems of mathematics can be solved
on it and if the teacher is expert in drawing, he can teach various lessons effectively by
drawing beautiful diagrams, maps and graphs on it. Now, boards with green, yellow or blue
colour are also available and known as chalk boards.
Maximum use of pictures should be made for teaching children, specially children of lower
classes, because they are keenly interested in pictures. A small child can
learn alphabet through
pictures. he does not understand that 2+3=5 but he will do so easily if two
and, then, three
sparrows are shown in a picture, to be counted five in all. He will learn to
take care of his eyes and teeth with appropriate pictures. Likewise, while teaching about the
life of people in Canada, pictures from Canada should be shown to make the lesson interesting
and life-like. Pictures can be taken from newspapers, magazines etc.
Charts also have an important place in teaching. Small children can be taught reading by showing
a word and the appropriate picture on a chart. A story can be taught effectively by showing
pictures (on a chart) relating to its different stages. Diagrams of science
practicals and pictures related to various historical events can be shown on a chart.
Flannel board (a piece of flannel fixed on wooden board) can be used for teaching numerous
items in an interesting manner. Flash cards can be placed on and removed from it
as per requirements.
For teaching history and geography effectively, the use of maps and globe is
a must. Map of India
should be used while teaching historical events of India. Map of the world
and globe reveal how
various parts of the world are linked with one another and where one country
is situated with
respect to another.
Models - made of clay, cardboard and wood - can be used for teaching those
items which cannot be brought in the classroom. Elephant can be shown in the classroom in the form
of a model. Appropriate information about Taj Mahal or Bhakra Dam can be given with the
help of their models. A proper study of parts of human body - ears, eyes, nose
etc. - can be done with the help of a model.
A large number of lessons can be taught with radio. Through it, they come to
know about the views
of those famous teachers who cannot reach every school. Most of the radio stations broadcast
programmes for school children, like A.I.R. Jalandhar's programme 'school broadcast'.
Most of the children are glued to TV sets and enjoy various entertainment programmes. Special
programmes should be telecast from the Doordarshan for them. Capable and experienced teachers
can teach lessons of different subjects effectively on Doordarshan with the
help of aids like chalk board, models, pictures, charts, flannel board, maps and globe. Of
course, personal contact between the Doordarshan teacher and the students cannot be there and the
latter cannot put any questions to him.
The teacher should not be expected to prepare charts, models etc. because apart from classroom
teaching, he has to perform certain other duties also. So it becomes essential that the Education
Department should prepare aids for various lessons of different subjects for
different classes, supply the same to the schools and arrange seminars for teachers to
encourage them to make use of them.
Last, but not the least ! It should be remembered that merely the use of audio-visual aids does
not make the lesson successful. If the teacher does not know how to use the
aids properly, even
a large number of aids cannot help him. Use of appropriate aids at the appropriate time is
essential for successful teaching.
SINGH KAILE, Ph.D.(Education), M.Phil(Education), M.Ed., M.A.(English),
M.A.(Punjabi) has 28 years' experience as a lecturer in a college of
education, and is presently Principal, G.H.G.Kh. College of
Education, Gurusar Sudhar, Distt Ludhiana(Pb.) India. He has published
many research papers, including Bharti Sikhya Churahe Te (in Punjabi)
which has been translated into English and is being serialised here.
can be reached by e-mail at mailto::email@example.com